Mentions of grapes are found in the most most ancient written sources of mankind, and grapes images can be met on walls of the Egyptian pyramids. Grapes were the first plant landed on a grief Ararat after a flood. Such important remark in the Bible had key value during ancient times. In the Ancient Greece grapes too considered as gift of gods, and wine, undoubtedly, had a divine origin. Such honoring of grapes and everything that from it prepared, completely not casually. Besides that grapes are tasty in itself, it gives magnificent juice, of it do wine, cognac and a grappa. The ancient people were able to use medical properties of grapes against quinsy, bleedings, ulcers, as laxative, diuretic, expectorant and bracing means.
In areas of the Mediterranean and neighboring countries for the first time to cultivate grapes have begun still in copper and bronze ages, that is, 6-7 millenia ago, hardly the mankind left the Stone Age. Traces of wild grapes are found out by paleontologists together with prints of the most ancient representatives of flora. Still millions years ago, during a tertiary epoch – at the time of origin of plane trees, oaks, poplars and palm trees there was a family ampelidnyh plants, that is ancestors of cultural grapes. On the Egyptian frescos dated six millenia ago, it is well visible, as grapevines grow up by means of bow-shaped lanes, clusters press feet, and wine store in amphoras in special cellars. If in ancient Egypt in perfection knew technology of winemaking it is possible to assume that the same technology more ancient people owned also. In Egypt before construction of the first pyramids 10 grades red and white wine were already known.
In the Middle Ages grapes have extended across all southern Europe, the winemaking became one of the major elements of life The whole regions. In 13 century grapes start to grow up on island Madiera, and at 15-16 centuries it has extended on Northern, Central and the South America, has reached Southern Africa and has given new grades with the diversified shades of taste and invariable advantage for health. In 19 century hardly was there was no terrible loss – all grapes could be lost from the American wrecker of the phylloxera which have arrived to Europe together with saplings from America. More than half of all best vineyards of Europe were lost, the destruction expected also other plantations. To rescue the European grapes the wild American rods having immunity against a phylloxera have helped. On them ancient European grades have been imparted, grapes became steady against a phylloxera, but have considerably lost in taste. It is said that those few wines made to epidemic of a phylloxera in the end of 19 centuries, remained up to now, it is much better modern.
Speaking about grapes as a product for cookery it is impossible to hide its difficult compatibility with other products. Grapes, as well as natural milk, it is recommended to eat, with what without mixing. Only derivative of grapes – juice, wine and raisin can safely be used in the most various combinations to other products. And it is final, telling about grapes, it is impossible to hold back its curative properties.
In grapes contains more than 150 active substances. There is even a whole direction in medicine – ampeloterapiya, that is treatment by grapes. Grapes can really act as a medicine in certain cases. In its thin skin, pulp and sunflower seeds the most valuable contain for the person of substance: the pectins painting and tannins, essence, anthocyanins, vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, With, PP, K and folic acid. On structure and a parity of useful substances (except, naturally, fats) grapes can be compared to milk. In leaves and stones a considerable quantity of tannins, and also flavovinogradnoids, fat oils, choline and organic acids contains. In grapes contain micro- and macrocells: zinc, potassium, calcium, iron, manganese, copper and magnesium. Especially it is a lot of in it potassium so grapes are useful to heart. Besides, grapes raise level of hemoglobin and stimulate hematopoiesis. For medicinal needs it is possible to use grapes entirely – berries, leaves, a thin skin and sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds though are not used in cookery (unless as raw materials for spin oils), but have valuable property to connect free radicals by means of polyphenols containing in them. (Free radicals are one of the reasons of aging of an organism and development of oncological diseases.) oil from grape stones – known aphrodisiac: it raises sexual activity and increases sensuality, not to mention other pleasant properties, as improvement of a condition of a skin and hair. Certainly, all those substances which contain in essences and oils, contain and in fresh grapes. But, unfortunately, not always it turns out to eat kg-other of grapes and to feel long-awaited advantage and the taste sea. People for long centuries have thought up weight of shifts to keep properties of grapes.
Juice – perhaps, the first that people have learnt to do of grapes. It was very quickly revealed that so reviver not only is tasty, but also is useful. Grape juice is not only raw materials for wine, but also an independent product at which to the full there are vitamins, microcells and other useful substances. Juice has high nutritiousness – the litre of grape juice is comparable on nutritiousness about 1,5 kg of apples or peaches, 1 kg of fish or 650 g beef. Caloric content of grape juice about 70-90 kcal on 100 g, even above, than beer. But it at all does not mean that the people often drinking grape juice, will as get out of the shape, as fans of beer. Grape juice consists of readily soluble sugars which are completely processed by our organism and do not remain in the form of unnecessary fatty adjournment.
The product second for the importance from grapes – wine is not only tasty alcoholic drink, but also a medicine. So, a grade of grapes the Isabella and wine from it can serve expectorant as means at treatment of diseases of respiratory ways or sharp colds. And here the Alexandria muscat is good at throat inflammations. It is important to remember, using wine as a medicine that for a positive effect it is enough to moisten only a throat with wine, and it is perfect optional to drink «for treatment» all bottle.
The raisin, that is dried grapes, keeps almost all vitamins, all mineral substances, micro- and macrocells of juicy berries. Except substances already containing in grapes in raisin there are new. We will tell, in raisin the maintenance of iron which will be useful at blood losses (for example, to women, especially during pregnancy or feeding of the child) raises, and potassium which is enough and in fresh grapes, will strengthen cardiac muscles. The raisin cleans a stomach and an intestines, improves work of respiratory ways and reduces cough, strengthens a liver, kidneys and a bladder, treats intestines ulcers, and also supports a spleen in a tone. The raisin restores level of iron, calcium and sugars in an organism, normalises arterial pressure and reduces puffiness. The raisin can be mixed with porridges, is simply so or to prepare broths. Raisin dieticians as actively apply fine means to growing thin. The big maintenance of carbohydrates compensates a lack of calories of a diet, and character of these carbohydrates allows not to type weight.
The raisin has also “contra-indications”: a stomach ulcer of a stomach and a duodenal gut, a diabetes, ulcer processes in an oral cavity, the active form of a tuberculosis of lungs, enterizyumokolity, and the expressed adiposity.
Grapes leaves too are applied in the medical purposes. They are rich with ascorbic acid both other vitamins and minerals, and aromatic oils allow to use them in salads, marinades and pickles.
How much grapes are useful, so it and is whimsical. At a wrong combination to other products useful and valuable elements of juicy berries can not be acquired, and there will be only a taste yes to a calorie. It is not recommended to use grapes with:
• dairy products, especially with fresh milk ;
• the sweet aerated drinks (they and in itself are not useful);
• smoked products, marinades, pickles and fat food (grapes in a combination to such neighbours for a long time will delay digestion of all contained stomach);
• rough crude vegetables – a radish, cabbage, a beet and similar.
• other berries or fruit, and also with greens.
The best decision will refuse at all other food during pleasure by grapes berries. And taste will not lose all beauty, and the advantage will be maximum.
One small, but very important detail. Dentists always recommend to rinse carefully a mouth after grapes. The matter is that acid and the sugar, containing in juice, accelerate destruction of the damaged enamel (caries) and can cause a pain. Besides acid influences and on healthy enamel, in due course destroying it. Having rinsed an oral cavity, you will not give it chance to spoil pleasure from grapes. It is paradoxical, but the dried up grapes, that is raisin, not only grape leaves no harm to tooth enamel, but also slows down caries development. Such useful property acid which suppresses growth of the bacteria causing caries, illnesses of gums possesses oleanolevaya and does not allow to be fixed on a teeth to these harmful microorganisms.
Grape juice, not such whimsical in culinary sense as grapes, always were a source of inspiration for confectioners. The well-known east sweets received by evaporation of grape juice. It is a lot of recipes of refined east delicacies it is live and now. Having had patience, it is possible to reproduce these tasty and useful sweets.
Сook grapes marinaded.